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I was wondering if the page rank and the backlinks are just for one page? If this is so then should we optimize each and every page of the site and try to bring backlinks to each of them?

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I'm making the assumption that you're referring to PageRank (the Google algorithm) rather than page rank - where a page is positioned in search results... –  Mike Hudson Sep 18 '11 at 9:21
    
The answer to this question has been given many times in this site but yet this is the first question that actually asks the question. Kinda interesting. –  John Conde Sep 18 '11 at 15:21
    
@MikeHudson: Yes –  Fahad Uddin Sep 18 '11 at 17:39
    
@JohnConde: Thanks –  Fahad Uddin Sep 18 '11 at 17:39
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1 Answer

up vote 2 down vote accepted

I was wondering if the page rank and the backlinks are just for one page?

From a great article done in 2007 by Smashing Magazine on PageRank, I draw your attention to #2, #3, and #9 in relation to your first question (i've included their other points for educational purposes):

  1. PageRank is only one of numerous methods Google uses to determine a page’s relevance or importance.
  2. Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B. Google looks not only at the sheer volume of votes; among 100 other aspects it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. However, these aspects don’t count, when PageRank is calculated.
  3. PageRank is based on incoming links, but not just on the number of them – relevance and quality are important (in terms of the PageRank of sites, which link to a given site). PR(A) = (1-d) + d(PR(t1)/C(t1) + … + PR(tn)/C(tn)). That’s the equation that calculates a page’s PageRank.
  4. Not all links weight the same when it comes to PR.
  5. If you had a web page with a PR8 and had 1 link on it, the site linked to would get a fair amount of PR value. But, if you had 100 links on that page, each individual link would only get a fraction of the value.
  6. Bad incoming links don’t have impact on Page Rank.
  7. Ranking popularity considers site age, backlink relevancy and backlink duration. PageRank doesn’t.
  8. Content is not taken into account when PageRank is calculated.
  9. PageRank does not rank web sites as a whole, but is determined for each page individually.
  10. Each inbound link is important to the overall total. Except banned sites, which don’t count.
  11. PageRank values don’t range from 0 to 10. PageRank is a floating-point number.
  12. Each Page Rank level is progressively harder to reach. PageRank is believed to be calculated on a logarithmic scale.
  13. Google calculates pages PRs permanently, but we see the update once every few months (Google Toolbar).

From Google's own PageRank algorithm:

PageRank does not rank web sites as a whole, but is determined for each page individually. Further, the PageRank of page A is recursively defined by the PageRanks of those pages which link to page A. - The Page Rank algorithm

The second part of your question was:

should we optimize each and every page of the site and try to bring backlinks to each of them?

To answer this question you need to understand that not only do external back-links create PageRank, but internal links can distribute PageRank as well, so technically you don't need an external back-link to a particular page, but a page of your own with high PR can pass on PR to your own internal page.

That being said - each page should be optimized of it's own accord - written with unique title and content, and in such a way that the page itself would attract it's own back-links. Not only will those back-links help that particular page, but the PR that comes with the back-link will be distributed internally to help other pages in your site that haven't been linked to externally.

In case all this information about PageRank starts people thinking that it's more important than it really is - please understand that PageRank (in of itself) is only one of hundreds of ranking factors, and more recently, has become less of a significant one.

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