Is there any way to develop a Wordpress site offline on a Windows machine, and then sync this wordpress site with the server?
Assuming by develop you mean templating and configuring a WordPress installation, this is not difficult to do. WordPress is just another database driven application so as long as you upload all of the files associated with WordPress and a copy of the database you will be "synced".
What you can do is install WAMP and then install WordPress normally. Then after you are done configuring it, upload all of the WordPress files via FTP. Then use phpMyAdmin in WAMP to export the database for you. Then run that SQL code ion your server, probably also through phpMyAdmin, and you're done.